Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD), a form of Vitamin B3, is a metabolic co-enzyme found in all living cells and has more than 100 functions in the human metabolism. In addition, it plays a key role in cellular metabolism and is tasked with the important job of structuring, repairing, and remodeling every cell in the body. Therefore, these specialized enzymes require constant replenishment in the body. NAD IV therapy, furthermore, helps to replenish these drained enzymes and target brain restoration.
depression, acute and chronic pain, fibromyalgia, OCD, PTSD, anxiety, neurocognitive disorders, spectrum disorders including Rett Syndrome and autism
NAD+ IV therapy has been studied since the early 1920’s. Many of the chronic ailments that human beings suffer from tend to take root when the body is in an energy metabolic deficient cellular environment. As a result, the biological techniques for measuring mitochondrial function have become increasingly refined and now more than a hundred diseases have been identified as having a major mitochondrial component.
Scientists believe that mitochondrial disease may continue to have a greater impact on all diseases. Furthermore, it is also believed that many people have a degree of subtle “subclinical” mitochondrial impairment that may lead to a cascading effect of disease development. About 90% of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly refined and efficient system for producing the phenomenal amounts of energy. Therefore, these amounts are required to maintain the structure and function of the body as well as regulate body temperature.
NAD+ IV therapy eases the discomfort of withdrawal, reduces cravings, produces a mind and body cellular restoration and speeds up the detox process. When a person stops taking drugs, in most cases their brain will heal and replenish receptors and neurotransmitters to normal levels. However, this process can take a long time leading to relapses and emotional despair. NAD IV therapy significantly speeds up this process by restoring neurotransmitter and cognitive function.
Usually, after the 4th treatment patients report feeling better with increased mental clarity. However, it is important to note that patients must complete each infusion process in order to eliminate or minimize cravings. Accordingly, it is still recommended that after receiving NAD IV therapy to utilize appropriate counseling for the psychological aspects of addiction to further reduce chances of relapse.
Key enzymes in NAD+ signaling pathways are known to protect the liver from fat accumulation, fibrosis, and insulin resistance. These which are related to the development of fatty liver diseases, such as NAFLD and NASH. Raising NAD+ levels back to those of young or lean mice has been particularly effective at preventing and treating obesity, alcoholic steatohepatitis, and NASH, while improving glucose homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, NAD+ boosting appears improve the health of the liver. In addition, NAD+ also increases its capacity for regeneration and protect it against hepatotoxicity.
Several lines of evidence indicate that reduced levels of NAD+ in aged kidneys are largely responsible for reduced kidney function and resilience with age.
Treatment with NAD+ dramatically improves muscle function, and reverses detrimental age-associated changes in muscle. In doing so, there is increased mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, reduced inflammation. In addition, switched glycolytic type II muscle to a more oxidative fiber type for added benefits (Gomes et al., 2013).
NAD+ levels are critical for normal heart function and recovery from injury. NMN treatment either 30 min before ischemia (500 mg/kg, i.p.) or repetitive administration just before and during reperfusion. Therefore, this provides marked protection against pressure overload and ischemia-reperfusion injury, reducing infarct size by as much as 44% (Hsu et al., 2009; Karamanlidis et al., 2013; Pillai et al., 2005; Yamamoto et al., 2014).
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases contribute to the greatest decline in quality of life after 65. As a result, this is directly responsible for about one-third of all deaths (Nichols et al., 2014; Ungvari et al., 2010). Treatment of mice with NMN (500 mg/kg/day in water for 28 days) improved blood flow. Equally important, increased endurance in elderly mice by promoting SIRT1-dependent increases in capillary density (D.A.S., unpublished data).
Thus re-pleting NAD+ levels in the vascular endothelium is an attractive approach to increasing mobility in the elderly. Additionally, treating conditions exacerbated by decreased blood flow is a benefit of NAD+. Also to benefit is ischemia-reperfusion injury, slow wound healing, liver dysfunction, and muscle myopathies.
There is a growing body of evidence that NAD+ precursors can have anti-inflammatory effects. Treatment of 24-month-old mice with NMN for 1 week reduced the expression of inflammation markers. Such markers are TNF-a and IL-6 in skeletal muscle (Gomes et al., 2013).
Similarly, NR significantly reduced inflammation in a mouse model of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) autoimmunity (Fang et al., 2016). In addition, muscular dystrophy MDX mouse model was also reduced. NAM has been effective in the treatment of various inflammatory skin conditions (Niren, 2006). It reduces the area of infiltration and demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse models (Kaneko et al., 2006). Equally important it prevents photo-immunosuppression and photo-carcinogenesis (Damian et al., 2008; Gensler, 1997; Yiasemides et al., 2009).
Numerous studies have reinforced the view that NAD+ levels are key to neuronal function and survival. In addition to protecting damaged neurons, NAD+ precursors have shown promise in delaying the effects of several neurodegenerative diseases. In models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), NAD treatment improved cognition and synaptic plasticity in mice and rats (Gong et al., 2013; Hou et al., 2018; Long et al., 2015; Sorrentino et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2016).
NAM increases cell viability in a Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) (Jia et al., 2008). Secondly, several studies have also suggested that an NA-rich diet both reduces the risk of developing PD and improves the physical functioning of individuals with PD (Alisky, 2005; Fall et al., 1999; Hellenbrand et al., 1996).
NAD-boosting regimens prevent and in some cases can reverse neuronal degeneration. In fact, these include hearing loss, prion toxicity, retinal damage, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and peripheral neuropathy (Brown et al., 2014; Dutca et al., 2014; Hamity et al., 2017; Lin et al., 2016; Vaur et al., 2017; Yin et al., 2014; Zhou et al., 2015).
Studies have shown that NAD switches “off” the genes of aging. This helps to extend life span, increases endurance, improves cognitive function, and enhances cellular energy. These benefits add up to a system-wide slowing and reversal of certain aging processes as well as disease prevention. NAD’s ability to reduce inflammation, and increase DNA repair improves longevity. In addition, improved energy makes it just as essential as hormone replacement.
NAD+ levels decline steadily with age with negative lifestyle choices. Furthermore, environmental exposures causes a more rapid loss. With NAD deficiency, processes requiring NAD+ will not function the same as we age which causes further NAD+ depletion. Likewise, society’s current state of health is causing cells to work harder than previous decades. They work harder to metabolize toxins, handle stress and adapt to environmental factors. Replenishing NAD stores helps reduce oxidative stress, which plays a major role in creating inflammation and disease.
In the majority of the population, NAD+ IV administration can cause pressure or cramping sensation in both the abdomen and head. Because of the association with B3 (niacin), it is thought the sensation is the common flushing effect niacin can cause.
These side effects can be minimized and controlled by adjusting the drip rate. Often the first 3-4 therapies need to run over 4-8 hours. It is unknown why some people get this reaction and others can run the same NAD+ drip in less than two hours. Typically after the fourth IV the symptoms reduce and IVs can be run 50% faster.
If a patient can tolerate the full infusion in a short period of time they are allowed to run it faster. However, it is not necessary to run the infusion over 4+ hours if the patient tolerates the infusion without adverse side effects as mentioned above.